Musculoskeletal Tumors

City of Hope has one of the largest musculoskeletal cancer programs in California. As one of a handful of institutes to attain the elite designation of Comprehensive Cancer Center by the National Cancer Institute, City of Hope is acknowledged as a leader in cancer research and treatment.  Patients at City of Hope have access to innovative clinical trials, and researchers and physicians who are nationally recognized experts in developing novel methods for preventing, detecting and treating soft tissue sarcoma and bone cancers, and a multidisciplinary team of specialists in medical oncology, surgery and rehabilitation.
  • City of Hope serves as a regional referral center for both pediatric and adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma and bone cancer and is a national leader in the use of expandable implants. City of Hope’s Musculoskeletal Cancers and Sarcoma Program is led by Judith K. Sato, M.D. 
  • The program approach integrates powerful new anti-cancer drugs with alternative therapies with a goal of sparing limbs.  In 85 percent of our of cases, we have saved the patient’s limb. We are actively developing tomorrow’s treatments today, and our musculoskeletal investigators are collaborating with scientists in other disciplines to develop promising new treatments.
Expedited Treatment by a Multidisciplinary Team
  • Patients with musculoskeletal cancers find more than hope here. They also find expedited diagnosis and rapid treatment that begins in a matter of hours or days, not weeks. Because musculoskeletal cancers can be especially aggressive and fast-growing, we have assembled a team comprised of all the necessary specialists and clinicians who are on-site and collaborating together on the best course of treatment for each individual patient.
  • In evaluating each individual’s needs—from children to adults to elderly patients—during the initial assessment in our sarcoma clinic, we use our advanced knowledge and experience to carefully make the correct diagnosis and deliver the best possible care, eliminating delays in treatment that help to achieve the optimal outcome. Total comprehensive care is provided, including cancer education, surgical options, rehabilitation and survivorship. Other important services include psychology, psychiatry and social work for the patient and his or her family, all crucial to achieving the best outcome.
  • Children who are treated at City of Hope and experience a relapse in adulthood will typically find the same team that treated them upon their initial diagnosis. This provides greater continuity of care and avoids having the patient seek a new team if the cancer returns.
We treat all types of musculoskeletal tumors, including:
Bone Tumors
Malignant Borderline Benign Non-neoplastic
Osteosarcoma Giant cell tumor Osteoid osteoma Fibrous dysplasia
Chondrosarcoma Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma Osteoblostoma Non-ossifying fibroma
Ewing's sarcoma   Enchondroma Aneurysmal bone cyst
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma   Condroblostoma [soft tissue tumor]
Adamantinoma   Chonddromyxoid fibroma [soft tissue tumor]
    Hemangioma [soft tissue tumor]
      Osteofibrous dysplasia
      Myositis ossificans
      Florid reactive periostitis
      Avulsion/stress fracture
      Pubic osteolysis
Soft Tissue Tumors
Benign Intermediate Malignant
Nodular Fascitis
Superficial fibromatoses
Deep fibromatoses
Inflammatory fibrosarcoma
Fibrous histiocytoma Dermatofibrosarcoma
Angiomatoid fibrous
Malig. fibrous histocytoma
Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma
Spindle cell lipoma
Epitheliold leiomyoma
Epithelioid leiomyosarcoma
Rhabdomyoma   Rhabdomyosarcoma
Hemangioendothelioma Angiosarcoma
Kaposi' s sarcoma
Hemangiopericytoma   Malig. Glomus tumor ...
Malig. Hemangiopericvtoma
Tenosynovial GCT   Synovial sarcoma
Malig. GCT of tendon sheath
Solitary mesothelioma   Malig. solitary fibrous tumor
Diffuse mesothelioma
Traumatic neuroma
  Malig. peripheral nerve sheath tumor
Triton tumor
Clear cell sarcoma
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor
Paraganglioma   Malig. Paraganglioma
Myositis ossificans
Extraskel. chondroma
Extraskel.  osteochondroma
  Extraskel. chondroma
Extroskel. osteochondroma
Mesenchymoma   Malig. mesenchymoma
Cong granular cell tumor
  Alveolar soft port sarcoma
Epithelioid sarcoma
Angiomyxoma   Malig. extrarenal rhabdoid tumor
Desmoplastic small cell tumor
About Musculoskeletal Tumors
Bone tumors may be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone tumors are more common than malignant ones. Both types may grow and compress healthy bone tissue and absorb or replace it with abnormal tissue. However, benign tumors do not spread and are rarely life-threatening.
Cancer that arises in the bone (primary bone cancer) is not the same disease as cancer that spreads to the bone from another part of the body (secondary bone cancer). Primary bone cancer is rare, with approximately 2,500 new cases diagnosed each year in the United States. More commonly, bones are the site of tumors that result from the spread (metastasis) of cancer from another organ, such as the breasts, lungs, and prostate.
The most common type of bone cancer is osteosarcoma, which develops in new tissue in growing bones. Another type of cancer, chondrosarcoma, arises in cartilage. Evidence suggests that Ewing’s sarcoma, another form of bone cancer, begins in immature nerve tissue in bone marrow. Osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma tend to occur more frequently in children and adolescents, while chondrosarcoma occurs more often in adults

Musculoskeletal Tumors Symptoms

A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:
  • Bone pain (may be worse at night or when the bone is used, as in walking)
  • Bone break (fracture), even from slight injury
  • A mass and swelling at the tumor site

Soft tissue tumors may not cause any symptoms in their early stages, because the tissue tends to be very elastic. These tumors can become quite large before they can be felt. Typically, the first symptom is a painless lump. As the growing tumor begins to press against nerves and muscles, it may cause pain and soreness.