Prostate Cancer

At City of Hope, we are actively developing tomorrow’s treatment protocols today for prostate cancer. As a patient at City of Hope, you have a highly experienced and dedicated team to treat you and help you cope with cancer.
Our involvement in managing a patient’s prostate cancer starts very early and includes all stages of disease, ranging from localized to recurrent and advanced prostate cancer.  City of Hope’s Prostate Cancer Program focuses on providing the most advanced, compassionate, multidisciplinary care to patients with various stages of prostate cancer while actively investigating promising new treatment strategies.
Our innovative treatment options and technologies can help you recover faster, with fewer side effects.  Also setting us apart:
  • City of Hope is a world leader in high-precision, robotic-assisted prostate surgery, and our doctors have performed more advanced procedures for prostate cancer than any other facility on the West Coast.
  • Our team of experts was the first in the western United States to offer TomoTherapy — a targeted radiation therapy that can kill cancer cells while sparing healthy tissues nearby.
  • We aggressively pursue and use the newest, most innovative treatments known, including novel research therapies not available elsewhere.
About Active Surveillance
There has been some debate about the value of regular prostate-cancer screening (prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, test), especially in men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Many prostate cancers do not require immediate treatment because they are small, confined and slow growing. Aggressive treatment may be more disruptive to a man’s quality of life than "active surveillance," which closely monitors patients to detect early signs of disease progression and enables treatment before the cancer has spread beyond the prostate. For those men with low-grade tumors, City of Hope specialists may recommend active surveillance. Our specialists will determine the best course of treatment balanced with each man’s vision of a quality life beyond diagnosis.
New Prostate Cancer Markers
City of Hope has been an innovator in diagnostic research to more precisely track the progression of prostate cancer. Our researchers have developed a test using the TMPRSS2:ERG marker that supplements the PSA test and more accurately indicates if a biopsy is needed. The research was published in 2008 in the journal Clinical Chemistry in Work and presented at the Western Section of the American Urological Association Conference in 2013. Our researchers have discovered new markers for prostate cancer that will improve our ability to detect prostate cancer without a biopsy.
City of Hope ascribes to the American Urologic Association’s newest guidelines for prostate cancer screening, published in May 2013.
From diagnosis and treatment to recovery, prostate cancer patients at City of Hope have access to all of the best tools and strategies for beating the disease.
 About Prostate Cancer 
The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). The prostate gland produces fluid that makes up part of the semen.

Prostate cancer is found mainly in older men. As men age, the prostate may get bigger and block the urethra or bladder. This may cause difficulty in urination or can interfere with sexual function. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed to correct it. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Risk Factors
There is no known exact cause of prostate cancer. Doctors often cannot explain why one man develops prostate cancer and another does not. However, research has shown that men with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop prostate cancer.
  • Age
    Age is the main risk factor for prostate cancer. More than 70 percent of all prostate cancers occur in men over 65. Beginning at 50, you should have a prostate exam every year.
  • Family history
    A man's risk is higher if his father or brother had prostate cancer. Men with a first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer are considered high risk, and should begin screenings at age 40.
  • Race
    African-American males over 40 have the highest rate of prostate cancer and should begin screenings at age 40.
  • Certain prostate changes
    Men with cells called high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia may be at increased risk for prostate cancer.
  • Diet
    Some studies suggest that men who eat a diet high in animal fat or meat may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. Men who eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may have a lower risk.
Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Your doctor may be able to suggest ways to reduce your risk and can plan a schedule for regular checkups.
Prostate Cancer Symptoms
These and other symptoms may be caused by prostate cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:
  • Weak or interrupted flow of urine
  • Frequent urination (especially at night)
  • Trouble urinating
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • A pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn't go away
  • Painful ejaculation