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Gallbladder Cancer

Overview

Cancer of the gallbladder — the organ where bile is concentrated and stored to help the liver digest fats — is a very rare disease. Gallbladder cancer is difficult to detect in its early stages because symptoms typically don't develop until the cancer has grown significantly.

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with gallbladder cancer, contact the experts here at City of Hope. Inroads are being made in the treatment of gallbladder cancer, and seeking medical care at a comprehensive cancer center provides the experience and options necessary to successfully attack this rare but serious disease.

Request a consultation

If you have been diagnosed with gallbladder cancer or are looking for a second opinion consultation about your treatment, request an appointment online or contact us at 800-826-HOPE. Please visit Making Your First Appointment for more information.

For over a decade, U.S. News & World Report has named City of Hope as one of the top cancer hospitals in the country. Patients who seek treatment or second opinions here will have the most experienced doctors and therapy options such as clinical trials of promising drugs or minimally invasive surgical techniques that can reduce side effects and recovery time. City of Hope brings together a broad array of cancer expertise from multiple disciplines, all under one roof.

Highlights of our Liver Program include:

  • State-of-the-art diagnostic imaging and mapping tools
  • Renowned surgeons with specialized gall bladder cancer expertise
  • Robotically assisted surgery using the da Vinci system
  • Minimally invasive laparoscopic procedures
  • Ultraprecise radiation therapy including helical TomoTherapy
  • Chemotherapy and targeted drug therapy
  • Pioneering drug research and clinical trials

NEWS & BREAKTHROUGHS

What is gallbladder cancer?

Your gallbladder is located just beneath the liver, to the right of the abdomen. This small, pear-shaped organ is responsible for storing bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

It is hard to diagnose cancer of the gallbladder because early symptoms are difficult to recognize. Another challenge is the location of the gallbladder. Since it is deep inside the body, cancer can spread easily without detection.

What increases your risk of gallbladder cancer?

Several risk factors may make a person more likely to develop gallbladder cancer. Some of these factors include:

  • Gallbladder conditions: A history of gallstones, porcelain gallbladder or Gallbladder polyps may increase your risk of gallbladder cancer.
  • Gender: Women are more likely to be diagnosed with gallbladder cancer and gallstones.
  • Obesity: Obesity increases your risk of gallstones and gallbladder cancer.
  • Age: Most cases of gallbladder cancer are found in people aged 65 or older.

What are the symptoms of gallbladder cancer?

Symptoms of gallbladder cancer can go unnoticed until the late stages of the disease, but common symptoms are:

  • Jaundice (the yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  • Lumps in the abdomen
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Abdominal pain

Treatment options for gallbladder cancer

How is gallbladder cancer detected?

Catching gallbladder cancer early — before it has a chance to grow and spread — is crucial to successful treatment. Although there are no screening guidelines for this cancer, it can be detected during a patient’s annual physical exam. If blood tests reveal abnormal liver enzymes, positive results on follow-up tests — and ruling out other diseases — may indicate gallbladder cancer.

How is gallbladder cancer diagnosed?

To diagnose gallbladder cancer, doctors first assess your complete medical history in addition to your risk factors and symptoms. You must also undergo a physical exam and one or more of the following tests:

Blood tests

Blood tests may be performed to detect high bilirubin levels (the cause of jaundice) or other substances in the blood that may signal the presence of cancer. Additional blood tests may also be conducted to detect elevated levels of certain substances known as tumor markers.

Imaging Tests

Abdominal ultrasound: The initial imaging test a patient undergoes is usually an ultrasound. This type of test uses high frequency sound waves to create images of the gallbladder. Abdominal ultrasounds require no radiation and are noninvasive.

A doctor or ultrasound technician simply moves a wand-like instrument over your abdomen to capture the echoes that bounce off your internal organs. Those echoes are converted into images with the help of specialized computer programs.

Endoscopic or laparoscopic ultrasound: These ultrasounds provide more detailed images, as they allow for closer access to the gallbladder. Endoscopic and laparoscopic ultrasounds may be used to assist in removing tissue for a biopsy and determining if cancer has spread. During these procedures, a thin tube fitted with a light at the end is inserted through the mouth and down the throat, or through a small incision in the side of the body.

CT scan: This test uses a computer and X-rays to detect gallbladder abnormalities. It can also be used to stage cancer and assist in needle guided biopsies.

MRI scan: Similar to CT scans, MRI scans produce detailed images of soft tissues in the body using a powerful magnetic field and radio waves.

Every patient is different, with different needs. City of Hope treats you as a valued individual. Our entire team works together to bring you precise, state-of-the-art surgical, radiation, drug and other therapy options that will deliver the best outcome for you. We support you every step of the way, both during treatment and long after, helping you and your loved ones manage your recovery.

Highlights of City of Hope's gallbladder cancer treatment program include:

Surgery

Our surgeons specialize in the complex procedures often required to treat gallbladder cancer. They are constantly working to develop procedures to improve a patient’s clinical outcome and quality of life. These include expanding the use of minimally invasive procedures and stimulating liver regeneration, so more suspicious tissue can be removed during surgery. Procedures may include laparoscopic surgery (using miniaturized operation instruments inserted through a thin tube) and robotically assisted surgery (using a specially designed robot equipped with miniature surgical tools) and advanced imaging systems, giving the surgeon superior visualization and greater control at the tumor site.

Radiation Therapy

At City of Hope, we are experts in precise radiation deliveryUsing advanced imaging techniques, our radiation team can accurately locate and target a gallbladder tumor for treatment, ensuring maximum impact against cancer cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding normal tissues. At City of Hope, these techniques include respiratory gating and four-dimensional computed tomography.

Drug Therapy

Gallbladder cancer is often treated with chemotherapy (anti-cancer medicines that kill all fast-growing cells in the body).A new development in delivery chemotherapy to treat gallbladder cancer, Hepatic Arterial Infusion (HAI), uses a tiny pump implanted under the skin in the lower abdomen to deliver cancer-killing drugs directly into the main blood vessel entering the liver and surrounding organs, including the gallbladder. This direct method of chemotherapy delivery can be more effective against gallbladder cancer.

In addition to standard chemotherapy regimens, City of Hope patients can enroll in clinical trials testing new drugs (or new drug combinations) that may be more effective against the disease and/or less toxic to normal tissues.

 

 

City of Hope’s renowned physicians and researchers utilize the latest in technology and innovation to treat cancer, coupled with our enduring belief in providing unparalleled compassionate care.

Gastroenterology

Donald S. David, M.D., F.A.C.G.

Clinical Specialties

  • Gastroenterology

Medical Oncology

Vincent Chung, M.D., F.A.C.P.

Clinical Specialties

  • Medical Oncology
Marwan G. Fakih, M.D.

Clinical Specialties

  • Medical Oncology
Daneng Li, M.D.

Clinical Specialties

  • Medical Oncology
Dean W. Lim, M.D.

Clinical Specialties

  • Medical Oncology

Radiation Oncology

Yi-Jen Chen, M.D., Ph.D.

Clinical Specialties

  • Radiation Oncology

Surgical Oncology

Yuman Fong, M.D.

Clinical Specialties

  • Surgical Oncology
Lily Lau Lai, M.D., F.A.C.S.

Clinical Specialties

  • Surgical Oncology
Laleh Melstrom, M.D., M.S., F.A.C.S.

Clinical Specialties

  • Surgical Oncology
  • Hepato-Pancreato-Billiary (HPB) Surgery
Gagandeep Singh, M.D., F.A.C.S.

Clinical Specialties

  • Surgical Oncology
  • Liver and Pancreatic Surgery
  • Liver Cancers and Metastases
  • Biliary Tract Cancers
  • Gallbladder Cancer
  • Pancreas Cancer

Research and clinical trials for gallbladder cancer

At City of Hope, we offer access to numerous clinical trials aimed at improving survival rates and enhancing quality of life. Many of these new therapies are not always available elsewhere.

Our latest research covers many areas including new drug combinations that prevent gallbladder cancer recurrence, profiling of cancer tissue at the molecular level to determine genetic abnormalities, and blocking a specific protein known to cause a form of the disease.

Learn more about our current clinical trials.

Living with gallbladder cancer

Your supportive care continues long after treatment is complete. At City of Hope we have an unmatched reputation for coordinated, compassionate care. Our specialists will help you adjust to post-treatment diet and lifestyle changes, and our unique family and survivorship programs will assist your loved ones.

When you come here, you automatically gain access to an unparalleled array of support services to help you and your family take each step in your gallbladder cancer journey. We can help with all of these concerns, and more:

  • Managing side effects
  • Pain management
  • Navigating the health care system
  • Your emotional, social and spiritual health
  • Staying healthy and active
  • Healthy cooking and eating
  • Healing arts
  • Caregiver skills
  • Dealing with family, school or work stress

Learn more about these resources at our Living with Cancer or Supportive Care Medicine sites.

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