Staging - Maxillary Sinus Cancer

Staging is the process of finding out if and how far a cancer has spread. The stage of a cancer is one of the most important factors in choosing treatment options and predicting your chance for cure and long-term survival.
 
Staging is based on the results of the physical exam, nasoscopy, biopsy , the physician’s impression during or after surgery to remove the tumor (presence or absence of invasion of the tumor to other organs), and imaging tests (CT, MRI, bone scan).
 
Maxillary sinus cancer uses the following staging scheme:
 
Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)
In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.
 
Stage I
In stage I, cancer has formed in the mucous membranes of the maxillary sinus.
 
Stage II
In stage II, cancer has spread to bone around the maxillary sinus, including the roof of the mouth and the nose, but not to bone at the back of the maxillary sinus or the base of the skull.Stage III In stage III, cancer has spread to any of the following:
  • Bone at the back of the maxillary sinus
  • Tissues under the skin
  • Eye socket
  • Base of the skull
  • Ethmoid sinuses
or

Cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is3 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has also spread to any of the following:
  • Lining of the maxillary sinus
  • Bones around the maxillary sinus, including the roof of the mouth and the nose Tissues under the skin
  • Eye socket
  • Base of the skull
  • Ethmoid sinuses

Stage IV
Stage IV is divided into stage IVA, IVB and IVC.

Stage IVA
In stage IVA, cancer has spread to either:

One lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters

More than one lymph node anywhere in the neck, and they are all 6 centimeters or smaller and cancer has spread to any of the following:
  • Lining of the maxillary sinus
  • Bones around the maxillary sinus, including the roof of the mouth and the nose Tissues under the skin
  • Eye socket
  • Base of the skull.
  • Ethmoid sinuses.
or

Cancer has spread to any of the following:
  • Front of the eye
  • Skin of the cheek
  • Base of the skull
  • Behind the jaw
  • Bone between the eyes
  • Sphenoid or frontal sinuses

and cancer may also have spread to one or more lymph nodes 6 centimeters or smaller, anywhere in the neck.
 
Stage IVB
In stage IVB, cancer has spread to any of the following:
 
  • Back of the eye Brain Middle parts of the skull
  • Nerves in the head that go to the brain
  • Upper part of the throat behind the nose
  • Base of the skull and cancer may be found in one or more lymph nodes of any size, anywhere in the neck.
or

Cancer is found in a lymph node larger than 6 centimeters. Cancer may also be found anywhere in or near the maxillary sinus.
 
Stage IVC
In stage IVC, cancer may be anywhere in or near the maxillary sinus may have spread to lymph nodes, and has spread to organs far away from the maxillary sinus such as the lungs.