A National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center

Make an appointment: 800-826-HOPE
Medical Insurance Bookmark and Share

Medical Insurance Overview

City of Hope National Medical Center - Duarte (Main Campus)
 
City of Hope contracts with most major Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) and Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO) for hospital services. In addition, City of Hope is a participating provider in government programs such as Medicare, MediCal and Tricare/Champus.
 
Insurance coverage will vary depending upon your insurance company, your plan and the state in which you live. Please speak with a representative from your insurance company to ensure that your treatment is covered. Your insurance company can also tell you about any applicable co-payments or deductibles for which you will be responsible.
 
Other important numbers:

  • City of Hope Financial Support Services: 626-256-HOPE (4673), ext. 80285
  • City of Hope Managed Care Department: 626-256-HOPE (4673), ext. 86850
 
 
For questions about our community practice sites' medical insurance coverage, please call 626-775-3200. View a list of physician (Medical Foundation) providers.

Is My Insurance Accepted at City of Hope - Duarte?

For questions related to your specific coverage, please contact your insurance provider directly. You can find that phone number on your insurance card or in your benefits book. You can also call City of Hope New Patient Services at 800-826-HOPE (4673).

The following is a list of insurance companies which cover care at City of Hope National Medical Center (Duarte campus) and City of Hope Physicians (Medical Foundation). City of Hope National Medical Center contracts for hospital/technical services only. City of Hope Medical Foundation contracts for physician services rendered at City of Hope National Medical Center and in our community practice sites.
 
You can also find out what, if any, co-payments and deductibles will be your responsibility. Please note that although we strive to keep this information current, it is subject to change without notice.

If you wish to receive treatment at a City of Hope location or with a City of Hope physician but your insurance plan does not cover care at City of Hope, contact your insurance company and ask about obtaining authorization to receive treatment here.
 
Every medical situation - and every insurance plan - is different, and there is no guarantee that coverage can be secured. But it is reasonable to make this request, and to ask your insurance company to review the matter with City of Hope directly.
 
 
City of Hope National Medical Center (Duarte)
Contracted Insurance Companies
(Coverage of hospital/technical services)
City of Hope Physicians (Medical Foundation)
Contracted Insurance Companies and Medical Groups (Coverage of physicians' professional services and care at Duarte and Community Practice Sites)

*Indicates insurance plans
 
Benefit Panel Services PPO
Benefit Panel Services (Multiplan) PPO
Blue Distinction Center for Transplant BMT
Care 1st Health Plan
Envisioncare Triage-Advocates, Inc.
Great West Health Plan
Inland Empire Health Plan
LA Care Health Plan
LA Foundation for Medical Care PPO
LifeTrac Transplant Network BMT
Applecare Medical Group
Bright Medical Associates
Bristol Park Medical Group
Care 1st Health Plan
Coachella Valley Physicians of Prime Care
*Coventry Health PPO
*First Health Network PPO

HealthCare Partners
Inland Empire Health Plan
 








 
 

Covered California Health Exchange

 
City of Hope National Medical Center (which provides hospital services at the Duarte location) and City of Hope Medical Foundation (which bills for physician services) are participating in certain plans through the Affordable Care Act and the California health benefit exchange called Covered California. The information below applies to new individual and family plans purchased within or outside of Covered California to be effective on or after Jan. 1, 2014. Only the Anthem Blue Cross EPO and PPO plans are in-network for both hospital and physician services.

Anthem Blue Cross
 
  • Medical Center (Duarte): in-network for EPO and PPO plans
     
  • Foundation: in-network for EPO and PPO plans
     
  • Medical Center (Duarte) and Foundation are considered in-network for blood and marrow transplant services.

Blue Shield of California
 
  • Medical Center (Duarte): out of network for EPO and PPO. (Note: PPO patients may still access City of Hope, but will have a greater out-of-pocket expense. Please contact Blue Shield of California for more information. There are no out-of-network benefits for the EPO plan.)
     
  • Foundation: out of network for EPO and PPO. (Note: PPO patients may still have access to Foundation, but will have a greater out-of-pocket expense.  Please contact Blue Shield of California for more information. There are no out-of-network benefits for the EPO plan.)
     
  • Medical Center (Duarte) and Foundation are considered in-network for blood and marrow transplant services.
 
Health Net
 
  • Medical Center (Duarte): out of network for PPO. (Note: PPO patients may still access City of Hope, but will have a greater out-of-pocket expense. Please contact Health Net for more information)

  • Foundation: in-network for PPO plans
 
To learn more about the exchange, visit www.coveredca.com or call 888-975-1142.
 
For questions related to your specific coverage, please contact your insurance provider directly.
 
If you have additional questions, you may call 800-826-HOPE (4673).
 

Community Practices

City of Hope Medical Foundation contracts for physician services rendered at City of Hope community practice sites.
 
Please note that although we strive to keep this information current, it is subject to change without notice. For questions related to your specific coverage at one of our sites, please contact your insurance provider directly. You can find that phone number on your insurance card or in your benefits book. Your insurance company can also tell you about any applicable co-payments or deductibles for which you will be responsible. If you wish to receive treatment at a City of Hope location or with a City of Hope physician but your insurance plan does not cover care at City of Hope, contact your insurance company and ask about obtaining authorization to receive treatment.
 
For questions regarding our community practice sites' medical insurance coverage, please call 626-775-3200.
 
Medical Foundation providers for physicians' professional services only
 
Contracted Insurance Companies and Medical Groups
*Indicates insurance plans
Applecare Medical Group
Bright Medical Associates
Bristol Park Medical Group
Care 1st Health Plan
Coachella Valley Physicians of Prime Care
*Coventry Health PPO
*First Health Network PPO

HealthCare Partners
Inland Empire Health Plan
 
;

Glossary of Terms

Ambulatory Care
Health care services that do not require hospitalization of a patient, such as those delivered at a physician’s office, clinic, medical center or outpatient facility.
 
Authorization
An authorization is the approval of care, such as for a hospitalization. Authorizations can be granted by health plans, hospitals or medical groups, depending on who is financially responsible for the health services to be rendered.
 
Clinical Trials
Scientifically controlled research studies involving people. Such studies are used to determine the effectiveness of a new treatment or pharmaceutical, or to compare standard medications or procedures with others that may be equal or better.
 
Coinsurance
Portion of covered health care costs for which the covered person has a financial responsibility, usually according to a fixed percentage. Often coinsurance applies after meeting a deductible requirement.
 
Coordination of Benefits
Provision that applies when a person is covered by more than one insurance plan. Coordination of benefits requires that payment of benefits be coordinated by all plans in order to eliminate over-insurance or duplication of benefits.
 
Co-Payment
Cost-sharing arrangement in which the insured person pays a specified share of the charge for a specified service, such as $10 for an office visit. The insured person is usually responsible for payment at the time the health care is rendered.
 
Deductible
Amount of eligible expense an insured person must pay from his/her own pocket before the insurance company will pay for eligible benefits.
 
HMO (Health Maintenance Organization)
A healthcare service plan that requires its subscribers or members, except in a medical emergency, to use the services of designated physicians, hospitals or other providers of medical care.
 
IPA (Independent Practice Association)
A group of physicians that contracts for services with insurance plans.
 
Knox-Keene Act
This legislation provides protection to patients through a variety of requirements imposed on HMOs in California. Requirements cover services and characteristics such as marketing, financial, administrative, access and quality assurance.
 
MediCal
California’s version of Medicaid, this federal health insurance program is administered and operated individually by participating state and territorial governments. It provides medical benefits to eligible low-income and disabled persons needing health care. The federal and state governments share the program costs.
 
MediCal Managed Care
MediCal benefits for which the eligible person must choose a Primary Care Physician who manages all care provided to the eligible person via treatment or referrals for treatment by specialists. Patients who do not follow the prescribed guidelines are responsible for all charges associated with that episode of care and are not covered by the state MediCal program.
 
Medicare
Federally administered health insurance program that covers the cost of hospitalization, medical care and some related services for eligible persons. Medicare has two parts: PART “A” covers inpatient services, nursing home care, home health care, and hospice care; PART “B” covers outpatient services, physician services, medical equipment and supplies. Medicare covers those individuals 65 years or older and younger disabled people and dialysis patients.
 
Medi-Medi
Refers to those individuals who are dually eligible for Medicare and MediCal programs.
 
Non-Covered Services
Those services not covered by benefits policy.
 
Out-of-Network
Any insured person who receives care from a provider not holding a contract with the insured person’s insurance company is receiving services out-of-network. When a patient receives care out-of-network, he or she may be financially responsible for the care provided to them.
 
PCP (Primary Care Physician)
Physician whose practice is devoted to internal medicine, family/general practice or pediatrics.
 
POS (Point of Service)
Option offered by a health plan allowing the covered person to choose to receive a service from a participating or non-participating provider, with different benefit levels associated with the use of each.
 
PPO (Preferred Provider Organization)
An arrangement whereby a third-party payer contracts with a group of medical care providers who furnish services at lower-than-usual fees and in return guarantees a certain volume of patients.
 
Payor or Payer
A health plan, medical group, hospital, employer, individual or other entity that is financially responsible for payment of health care services.
 
Premium
The amount paid to an insurance carrier or health plan for providing insurance coverage under a contract.
 
Provider
In this document, provider refers to physician, hospital, nurse, pharmacy or any individual or group of individuals that provides a health care service.
 
*Most of the terms and definitions herein were taken from the Aventis Managed Healthcare: A Reference Guide.
 

Contacting Managed Care

Managed Care Inquiries
If you have additional questions, you may either email us at sdesbiens@coh.org or contact the Managed Care Department at 626-256-HOPE (4673), ext. 86850.

Please note that we are unable to answer questions about your specific benefits or medical coverage. For those inquiries, use the phone number on your insurance card or in your benefits book to call your managed care organization or insurance company directly.
 
Billing Inquiries
For questions about a bill from City of Hope National Medical Center (to cover hospital/technical services), please call Patient Financial Services at 800-270-HOPE (4673).
 
For questions about a bill from the City of Hope Medical Foundation (to cover physician/professional services), please call the Medical Foundation at 626-775-3200.
 
For information on becoming a patient at City of Hope, please email becomingapatient@coh.org, or call New Patient Services at 800-826-HOPE (4673).
 

Medical Insurance

Medical Insurance Overview

City of Hope National Medical Center - Duarte (Main Campus)
 
City of Hope contracts with most major Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) and Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO) for hospital services. In addition, City of Hope is a participating provider in government programs such as Medicare, MediCal and Tricare/Champus.
 
Insurance coverage will vary depending upon your insurance company, your plan and the state in which you live. Please speak with a representative from your insurance company to ensure that your treatment is covered. Your insurance company can also tell you about any applicable co-payments or deductibles for which you will be responsible.
 
Other important numbers:

  • City of Hope Financial Support Services: 626-256-HOPE (4673), ext. 80285
  • City of Hope Managed Care Department: 626-256-HOPE (4673), ext. 86850
 
 
For questions about our community practice sites' medical insurance coverage, please call 626-775-3200. View a list of physician (Medical Foundation) providers.

Is My Insurance Accepted?

Is My Insurance Accepted at City of Hope - Duarte?

For questions related to your specific coverage, please contact your insurance provider directly. You can find that phone number on your insurance card or in your benefits book. You can also call City of Hope New Patient Services at 800-826-HOPE (4673).

The following is a list of insurance companies which cover care at City of Hope National Medical Center (Duarte campus) and City of Hope Physicians (Medical Foundation). City of Hope National Medical Center contracts for hospital/technical services only. City of Hope Medical Foundation contracts for physician services rendered at City of Hope National Medical Center and in our community practice sites.
 
You can also find out what, if any, co-payments and deductibles will be your responsibility. Please note that although we strive to keep this information current, it is subject to change without notice.

If you wish to receive treatment at a City of Hope location or with a City of Hope physician but your insurance plan does not cover care at City of Hope, contact your insurance company and ask about obtaining authorization to receive treatment here.
 
Every medical situation - and every insurance plan - is different, and there is no guarantee that coverage can be secured. But it is reasonable to make this request, and to ask your insurance company to review the matter with City of Hope directly.
 
 
City of Hope National Medical Center (Duarte)
Contracted Insurance Companies
(Coverage of hospital/technical services)
City of Hope Physicians (Medical Foundation)
Contracted Insurance Companies and Medical Groups (Coverage of physicians' professional services and care at Duarte and Community Practice Sites)

*Indicates insurance plans
 
Benefit Panel Services PPO
Benefit Panel Services (Multiplan) PPO
Blue Distinction Center for Transplant BMT
Care 1st Health Plan
Envisioncare Triage-Advocates, Inc.
Great West Health Plan
Inland Empire Health Plan
LA Care Health Plan
LA Foundation for Medical Care PPO
LifeTrac Transplant Network BMT
Applecare Medical Group
Bright Medical Associates
Bristol Park Medical Group
Care 1st Health Plan
Coachella Valley Physicians of Prime Care
*Coventry Health PPO
*First Health Network PPO

HealthCare Partners
Inland Empire Health Plan
 








 
 

Covered California

Covered California Health Exchange

 
City of Hope National Medical Center (which provides hospital services at the Duarte location) and City of Hope Medical Foundation (which bills for physician services) are participating in certain plans through the Affordable Care Act and the California health benefit exchange called Covered California. The information below applies to new individual and family plans purchased within or outside of Covered California to be effective on or after Jan. 1, 2014. Only the Anthem Blue Cross EPO and PPO plans are in-network for both hospital and physician services.

Anthem Blue Cross
 
  • Medical Center (Duarte): in-network for EPO and PPO plans
     
  • Foundation: in-network for EPO and PPO plans
     
  • Medical Center (Duarte) and Foundation are considered in-network for blood and marrow transplant services.

Blue Shield of California
 
  • Medical Center (Duarte): out of network for EPO and PPO. (Note: PPO patients may still access City of Hope, but will have a greater out-of-pocket expense. Please contact Blue Shield of California for more information. There are no out-of-network benefits for the EPO plan.)
     
  • Foundation: out of network for EPO and PPO. (Note: PPO patients may still have access to Foundation, but will have a greater out-of-pocket expense.  Please contact Blue Shield of California for more information. There are no out-of-network benefits for the EPO plan.)
     
  • Medical Center (Duarte) and Foundation are considered in-network for blood and marrow transplant services.
 
Health Net
 
  • Medical Center (Duarte): out of network for PPO. (Note: PPO patients may still access City of Hope, but will have a greater out-of-pocket expense. Please contact Health Net for more information)

  • Foundation: in-network for PPO plans
 
To learn more about the exchange, visit www.coveredca.com or call 888-975-1142.
 
For questions related to your specific coverage, please contact your insurance provider directly.
 
If you have additional questions, you may call 800-826-HOPE (4673).
 

Community Practices

Community Practices

City of Hope Medical Foundation contracts for physician services rendered at City of Hope community practice sites.
 
Please note that although we strive to keep this information current, it is subject to change without notice. For questions related to your specific coverage at one of our sites, please contact your insurance provider directly. You can find that phone number on your insurance card or in your benefits book. Your insurance company can also tell you about any applicable co-payments or deductibles for which you will be responsible. If you wish to receive treatment at a City of Hope location or with a City of Hope physician but your insurance plan does not cover care at City of Hope, contact your insurance company and ask about obtaining authorization to receive treatment.
 
For questions regarding our community practice sites' medical insurance coverage, please call 626-775-3200.
 
Medical Foundation providers for physicians' professional services only
 
Contracted Insurance Companies and Medical Groups
*Indicates insurance plans
Applecare Medical Group
Bright Medical Associates
Bristol Park Medical Group
Care 1st Health Plan
Coachella Valley Physicians of Prime Care
*Coventry Health PPO
*First Health Network PPO

HealthCare Partners
Inland Empire Health Plan
 
;

Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

Ambulatory Care
Health care services that do not require hospitalization of a patient, such as those delivered at a physician’s office, clinic, medical center or outpatient facility.
 
Authorization
An authorization is the approval of care, such as for a hospitalization. Authorizations can be granted by health plans, hospitals or medical groups, depending on who is financially responsible for the health services to be rendered.
 
Clinical Trials
Scientifically controlled research studies involving people. Such studies are used to determine the effectiveness of a new treatment or pharmaceutical, or to compare standard medications or procedures with others that may be equal or better.
 
Coinsurance
Portion of covered health care costs for which the covered person has a financial responsibility, usually according to a fixed percentage. Often coinsurance applies after meeting a deductible requirement.
 
Coordination of Benefits
Provision that applies when a person is covered by more than one insurance plan. Coordination of benefits requires that payment of benefits be coordinated by all plans in order to eliminate over-insurance or duplication of benefits.
 
Co-Payment
Cost-sharing arrangement in which the insured person pays a specified share of the charge for a specified service, such as $10 for an office visit. The insured person is usually responsible for payment at the time the health care is rendered.
 
Deductible
Amount of eligible expense an insured person must pay from his/her own pocket before the insurance company will pay for eligible benefits.
 
HMO (Health Maintenance Organization)
A healthcare service plan that requires its subscribers or members, except in a medical emergency, to use the services of designated physicians, hospitals or other providers of medical care.
 
IPA (Independent Practice Association)
A group of physicians that contracts for services with insurance plans.
 
Knox-Keene Act
This legislation provides protection to patients through a variety of requirements imposed on HMOs in California. Requirements cover services and characteristics such as marketing, financial, administrative, access and quality assurance.
 
MediCal
California’s version of Medicaid, this federal health insurance program is administered and operated individually by participating state and territorial governments. It provides medical benefits to eligible low-income and disabled persons needing health care. The federal and state governments share the program costs.
 
MediCal Managed Care
MediCal benefits for which the eligible person must choose a Primary Care Physician who manages all care provided to the eligible person via treatment or referrals for treatment by specialists. Patients who do not follow the prescribed guidelines are responsible for all charges associated with that episode of care and are not covered by the state MediCal program.
 
Medicare
Federally administered health insurance program that covers the cost of hospitalization, medical care and some related services for eligible persons. Medicare has two parts: PART “A” covers inpatient services, nursing home care, home health care, and hospice care; PART “B” covers outpatient services, physician services, medical equipment and supplies. Medicare covers those individuals 65 years or older and younger disabled people and dialysis patients.
 
Medi-Medi
Refers to those individuals who are dually eligible for Medicare and MediCal programs.
 
Non-Covered Services
Those services not covered by benefits policy.
 
Out-of-Network
Any insured person who receives care from a provider not holding a contract with the insured person’s insurance company is receiving services out-of-network. When a patient receives care out-of-network, he or she may be financially responsible for the care provided to them.
 
PCP (Primary Care Physician)
Physician whose practice is devoted to internal medicine, family/general practice or pediatrics.
 
POS (Point of Service)
Option offered by a health plan allowing the covered person to choose to receive a service from a participating or non-participating provider, with different benefit levels associated with the use of each.
 
PPO (Preferred Provider Organization)
An arrangement whereby a third-party payer contracts with a group of medical care providers who furnish services at lower-than-usual fees and in return guarantees a certain volume of patients.
 
Payor or Payer
A health plan, medical group, hospital, employer, individual or other entity that is financially responsible for payment of health care services.
 
Premium
The amount paid to an insurance carrier or health plan for providing insurance coverage under a contract.
 
Provider
In this document, provider refers to physician, hospital, nurse, pharmacy or any individual or group of individuals that provides a health care service.
 
*Most of the terms and definitions herein were taken from the Aventis Managed Healthcare: A Reference Guide.
 

Contact Managed Care

Contacting Managed Care

Managed Care Inquiries
If you have additional questions, you may either email us at sdesbiens@coh.org or contact the Managed Care Department at 626-256-HOPE (4673), ext. 86850.

Please note that we are unable to answer questions about your specific benefits or medical coverage. For those inquiries, use the phone number on your insurance card or in your benefits book to call your managed care organization or insurance company directly.
 
Billing Inquiries
For questions about a bill from City of Hope National Medical Center (to cover hospital/technical services), please call Patient Financial Services at 800-270-HOPE (4673).
 
For questions about a bill from the City of Hope Medical Foundation (to cover physician/professional services), please call the Medical Foundation at 626-775-3200.
 
For information on becoming a patient at City of Hope, please email becomingapatient@coh.org, or call New Patient Services at 800-826-HOPE (4673).
 
Patient Care Overview
City of Hope sees patients at all points in their care, from diagnosis, to treatment, through survivorship.
City of Hope combines compassionate care with the best and most innovative science. Our 100+ acre campus is designed to meet the full range of needs of our patients and families. This guide is designed to help you take advantage of all that is offered at City of Hope - Duarte.
Your insurance company/medical group will tell you if you need any authorizations. You can also find out what, if any, co-payments and deductibles will be your responsibility.
Information on how to obtain your City of Hope medical records.
 
Interpreter Services
City of Hope offers free interpretation for patients and caregivers whose first language is not English. Please call 626-256-HOPE (4673), ext. 62282, to reach the Clinical Social Work office.
The Sheri & Les Biller Patient and Family Resource Center embodies the heart and soul of City of Hope’s mission to care for the whole person.
NEWS & UPDATES
  • Brain tumors are exceptionally difficult to treat. They can be removed surgically, but individual cancer cells may have already spread elsewhere in the brain and can escape the effects of both radiation and chemotherapy. To prevent tumors from recurring, doctors need a way to find and stop those invasive cancer...
  • Breast cancer risk is personal; breast cancer risk assessment should be, too. To that end, City of Hope researchers have developed a starting point to help women (and their doctors) with a family history of the disease begin that risk assessment process. The result is an iPhone app, called BRISK, for Breast Can...
  • When it comes to breast cancer, women aren’t limited to getting screened and, if diagnosed, making appropriate treatment choices. They can also take a proactive stance in the fight against breast cancer by understanding key risk factors and practicing lifestyle habits that can help reduce their own breast...
  • Cancers of the blood and immune system are considered to be among the most difficult-to-treat cancers. A world leader in the treatment of blood cancers, City of Hope is now launching an institute specifically focused on treating people with lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma, as well as other serious blood and bone...
  • Genetics, genes, genome, genetic risk … Such terms are becoming increasingly familiar to even nonresearchers as studies and information about the human make-up become more extensive and more critical. At City of Hope, these words have long been part of our vocabulary. Researchers and physicians are studyi...
  • Mammograms are currently the best method to detect breast cancer early, when it’s easier to treat and before it’s big enough to feel or cause symptoms. But recent mammogram screening guidelines may have left some women confused about when to undergo annual testing. Here Lusi Tumyan, M.D., chief of t...
  • Although chemotherapy can be effective in treating cancer, it can also exact a heavy toll on a patient’s health. One impressive alternative researchers have found is in the form of a vaccine. A type of immunotherapy, one part of the vaccine primes the body to react strongly against a tumor; the second part dire...
  • The breast cancer statistic is attention-getting: One in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during her lifetime. That doesn’t mean that, if you’re one of eight women at a dinner table, one of you is fated to have breast cancer (read more on that breast cancer statistic), but it does mean that the ...
  • Rob Darakjian was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at just 19 years old. He began chemotherapy and was in and out of the hospital for four months. After his fourth round of treatment, he received a bone marrow transplantation from an anonymous donor. Today, he’s cancer free. In his first post, ...
  • Advanced age tops the list among breast cancer risk factor for women. Not far behind is family history and genetics. Two City of Hope researchers delving deep into these issues recently received important grants to advance their studies. Arti Hurria, M.D., director of the Cancer and Aging Research Program, and ...
  • City of Hope is extending the reach of its lifesaving mission well beyond U.S. borders. To that end, three distinguished City of Hope leaders visited China earlier this year to lay the foundation for the institution’s new International Medicine Program. The program is part of City of Hope’s strategi...
  • A hallmark of cancer is that it doesn’t always limit itself to a primary location. It spreads. Breast cancer and lung cancer in particular are prone to spread, or metastasize, to the brain. Often the brain metastasis isn’t discovered until years after the initial diagnosis, just when patients were beginning to ...
  • Blueberries, cinnamon, baikal scullcap, grape seed extract (and grape skin extract), mushrooms, barberry, pomegranates … all contain compounds with the potential to treat, or prevent, cancer. Scientists at City of Hope have found tantalizing evidence of this potential and are determined to explore it to t...
  • Most women who are treated for breast cancer with a mastectomy do not choose to undergo reconstructive surgery. The reasons for this, according to a recent JAMA Surgery study, vary. Nearly half say they do not want any additional surgery, while nearly 34 percent say breast cancer reconstruction simply isn’t imp...
  • The leading risk factor for breast cancer is simply being a woman. The second top risk factor is getting older. Obviously, these two factors cannot be controlled, which is why all women should be aware of their risk and how to minimize those risks. Many risk factors can be mitigated, and simple changes can lead...